Drawings are from Roman Silver Coins Vol.I Republic to Augustus by H.A.Seaby 1952
Circa 114 BC. Roman Republic silver denarius. Mint - Rome.
On the front of the coin is the head of Roma wearing a Phrygian helmet, facing right. The letters EX S C are behind his head. This stands for Ex Senatus Consulto. There is a ‘six-pointed star’ below his chin, being a XVI monogram (denarius).
The reverse side shows the helmeted shepherd Atys riding a goat carrying a branch over his shoulder, facing right. Some have speculated that the figure might be that of Dionysus. Directly below the goat is the name CETEGVS. In the exergue; which is a small space on the reverse side of a coin below the principle image, is the name ROMA.
~ NOTES ~
1. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum by H. A. Grueber London,
1910, Vol. II, pg. 271
2. Roman Silver Coins Vol.I Republic to Augustus by H.A.Seaby 1952, pg. 31
3. The Coinage of the Roman Republic by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pg. 73, 241
4. Roman Coins and Their Values by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 104
5. Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 302
“Cetegus or Cethegus is a cognomen of the gens Cornelia, but the moneyer cannot be identified. No record of this coin occurs in finds and the only known example is in the Paris cabinet (Bahrfeldt, NZ 1896, pg.95). The fabric of the coin and the presence of EX S.C. and X (with -) suggests the period of M.Serius Silus and L.Manlius torquatus, but otherwise there is no clue as to its date.”
The Coinage of the Roman Republic by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pg.73.
“Another special issue decreed by the Senate, this is one of the greatest rarities in the entire series.” Roman Coins and Their Values by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg.104.
“The moneyer is perhaps the father of the notorius political boss of the 70s, P. Cethegus, who on evidence of Cicero, Brutus 178 was born about 120.”
Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 302
Seaby places the date of this coin at BC 104 and spells his name as CETEGUS. Sydenham also spells the name as CETEGUS but with no date. Sear spells the name as CETHEGUS. Both spellings are correct.
Note: Atys is the Shepard consort of the mother Goddess Cybele. He rides a goat, often equated with fertility. The cult of Atys was of Phrygian origin and was introduced into Roma around B.C. 204 by the consul M. Cornelius Cethegus. It was later legalized by Claudius. Cybele was the goddess of nature and fertility. She presided over mountains and fortresses, her crown was in the form of a city wall. The cult of Cybele was directed by eunuch priests called Corybantes, often called Galli by the Romans, who led the faithful in orgiastic ceremonies accompanied by wild cries and the frenzied music of flutes, drums, and cymbals while dancing and drinking. Her annual spring festival celebrated the death and resurrection of her beloved son Attis, who was castrated and resurrected. The Dactyls are said to her attendants.